Elektrotechnické inženýrství

Komise : IEC/TC 46 (Cables, wires, waveguides, R.F. connectors, R.F. and microwave passive components and accessories)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 3.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This part of IEC 62153 specifies the procedures for measuring with triaxial cell the transfer impedance, screening attenuation or the coupling attenuation of connectors, cable assemblies and components, e.g. accessories for analogue and digital transmission systems and equipment for communication networks and cabling .

Measurements can be achieved by applying the device under test direct to the triaxial cell or with the tube in tube method in accordance with IEC 62153-4-7.

Oblast zaměření: Vláknová optika
Komise : IEC/SC 86A (Fibres and cables)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This part of IEC 60794 is a family specification covering optical fibre indoor cables that deployed in short length (≤ 10 m) outdoor environments. These cables generally possess the characteristics associated with indoor cable designs having the appropriate fire performance and flexibility that makes them suitable for use in premises. Because of its predicted use outdoors stability against environmental attack e.g. UV radiation and humidity (see Table 1, IEC 60794-6) is required. Typical application spaces include the extension of a short length of indoor cable outside the building such as to a NAP mounted outside the building at the house wall.

Oblast zaměření: Vláknová optika
Komise : IEC/SC 86A (Fibres and cables)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This part of IEC 60794 is a family specification covering optical fibre outdoor cables which are flame retardant and thus also applicable to indoor environments. These cables generally possess the characteristics associated with outdoor cable designs having similar thermal and mechanical robustness that makes them suitable for use in the outside plant, while simultaneously exhibiting the fire performance required in indoor premises. Typical application spaces are: e.g. extension of a “shorter length” of an outdoor cable into the building.

Oblast zaměření: Vláknová optika
Komise : IEC/SC 86A (Fibres and cables)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This part of IEC 60794 is a family specification covering features of optical fibre cables applicable to outdoor as well as indoor environments: so called “Universal Indoor-Outdoor cables”. These cables generally possess the characteristics associated with outdoor cable designs (according to IEC 60794-3 however typically less stringent, typically “non armoured”) having the thermal and mechanical robustness that makes them suitable for use in the outside plant, while simultaneously being flexible enough, compact and lightweight and exhibiting the fire performance required in indoor premises.  A typical application is e.g. the centralized cabling in central office, the Premises or Local Area Network where the same cable design is used for the entire length of the cabling link including both the indoor as well as the outdoor portions.

Oblast zaměření: Vláknová optika
Komise : IEC/SC 86A (Fibres and cables)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This part of IEC 60794 is a sectional specification covering general features of optical fibre cables applicable to outdoor as well as indoor environments: so called “indoor-outdoor cables”. Indoor-Outdoor cables are deployed in outside plant environment as well as in premises and thus fulfilling outdoor as well as indoor requirements. Typical application spaces are: e.g. extension of a duct cable into a building or using this design for centralized cabling in the central office, the Premises or Local Area Network where the same cable is used for the entire length of the cabling link including both the indoor as well as the outdoor portions.

Cables of which generally possess the characteristics associated with outdoor cable designs having the thermal and mechanical robustness that makes them suitable for use in the outside plant, while simultaneously being relatively flexible, compact and lightweight while exhibiting the fire performance required in indoor premises are specified in IEC 60794-6-10.

Flame Retardant Outdoor cables (see IEC 60794-6-20) are used when most of the cable length is deployed as an outdoor cable with a part of its length is deployed indoors. The cable design can be derived from a typical outdoor cable design according to the product specifications described in IEC 60794-3. The specific demand related to bend radii according to the installation situation and fire performance according to the regional legislation mainly requires the appropriate selection of the jacket material in combination with other material and / or design considerations.

Because of the use in buildings with tighter space restrictions, higher flexibility of the cable is often required for the installation. Often lower diameter cables are to be preferred.

Indoor cables which are weatherised (see IEC 60794-6-30) are used when an indoor cable is to be used outdoors over a short distance (few meters) e.g. when the network access point, NAP, is very close to the building. The indoor-outdoor fibre optical cable design can be derived from an indoor design (see IEC 60794-2 and IEC TR 62901 for typical applications) with specific outdoor performance features added. Critical parameters are UV stability, and resistance against exposure to humidity.

Oblast zaměření: Fotovoltaické systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 82 (Solar photovoltaic energy systems)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This International Standard series lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated.  Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percential operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users may want to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126.

This International Standard series lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates. This part of IEC 61215 is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules.

This standard does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration.

The objective of this test sequence is to determine the electrical and thermal characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in general open-air climatesoutdoors. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated.  Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types.  Acceleration factors may vary with product design and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime.Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.

Oblast zaměření: Fotovoltaické systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 82 (Solar photovoltaic energy systems)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This part of IEC 61215 lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates. This International Standard series lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated.  Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percential operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users may want to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126.

This document is intended to apply to all thin-film Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1 and IEC 61215-2 requirements for testing.

This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration.

The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical and thermal characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in climates described in the scopeoutdoors. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types.  Acceleration factors may vary with product design and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest.  Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime.Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.

This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1 and IEC 61215-2.

Oblast zaměření: Fotovoltaické systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 82 (Solar photovoltaic energy systems)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This International Standard series lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated.  Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percential operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users may want to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126.

This part of IEC 61215 lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si; a-Si/µc-Si) based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1 and IEC 61215-2 requirements for testing.

This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration.

The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical and thermal characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in climates described in the scopeoutdoors. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types.  Acceleration factors may vary with product design and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime.Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.

This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1 and IEC 61215-2.

Oblast zaměření: Fotovoltaické systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 82 (Solar photovoltaic energy systems)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This International Standard series lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated.  Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percential operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users may want to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126.This part of IEC 61215 lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates.

This document is intended to apply to all thin-film CdTe based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1 and IEC 61215-2 requirements for testing.

This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration.

The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical and thermal characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in climates described in the scopeoutdoors. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types.  Acceleration factors may vary with product design and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime.Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.

This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1 and IEC 61215-2.

Oblast zaměření: Fotovoltaické systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 82 (Solar photovoltaic energy systems)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This International Standard series lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated.  Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percential operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users may want to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126.

This part of IEC 61215 lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in general open air climates. This standard is intended to apply to all crystalline silicon terrestrial flat plate modules.

This standard does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration.

The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical and thermal characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in climates described in the scopeoutdoors. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types.  Acceleration factors may vary with product design and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime.  Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.

This standard defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1 and IEC 61215-2.

Oblast zaměření: Fotovoltaické systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 82 (Solar photovoltaic energy systems)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This International Standard series lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percential operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users may want to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126.

This part of IEC 61215 lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification and type approval of terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates. This standard is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules. It does not apply to systems that are not long-term applications, such as flexible modules installed in awnings or tenting.

This standard does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration.

This standard does not address the particularities of PV modules with integrated electronics, it may however be used as a basis for testing such PV modules.

The objective of this test sequence is to determine the electrical and thermal characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in climates described in the scopeoutdoors. The actual lifetime expectancy of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated.  Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types.  Acceleration factors may vary with product design and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Test results should not be construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime.Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506.

Oblast zaměření: Fotovoltaické systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 82 (Solar photovoltaic energy systems)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This document applies to photovoltaic systems that are integrated into buildings with the photovoltaic modules used as building products. It focuses on the properties of these photovoltaic systems relevant to basic building requirements and the applicable electro‑technical requirements. This document references international standards, technical reports and guidelines. For some applications, in addition, national standards (or regulations) for building products may apply in individual countries, which are not explicitly referenced here and for which harmonized International Standards are not yet available.

This document does not apply to concentrating photovoltaic systems or photovoltaic systems using concentrating photovoltaic modules.

This document addresses requirements on the BIPV systems in the specific ways they are intended to be mounted and the mounting structure, but not the BIPV module itself, which is within the scope of IEC 63092-1.

Oblast zaměření: Fotovoltaické systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 82 (Solar photovoltaic energy systems)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This document applies to photovoltaic modules used as building products. It focuses on the properties of these photovoltaic modules relevant to basic building requirements and the applicable electro-technical requirements. This document references international standards, technical reports and guidelines. For some applications, in addition, national standards (or regulations) for building products may apply in individual countries, which are not explicitly referenced here and for which harmonized International Standards are not yet available.

The document is addressed to manufacturers, planners, system designers, installers, testing institutes and building authorities.

This document does not apply to concentrating photovoltaic modules.

This document addresses requirements on the BIPV modules in the specific ways they are intended to be mounted but not the mounting structure itself, which is within the scope of IEC 63092-2.

Oblast zaměření: Přístroje jaderné techniky
Komise : IEC/SC 45A (Instrumentation and control of nuclear facilities)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

Since strict requirements on safety and availability of nuclear I&C apply, due consideration of cybersecurity threats is needed.

Since nowadays nuclear I&C programmable digital systems are largely based on digital systems including networks, individual I&C systems are more and more interconnected, and the I&C equipment is widely spread within the NPP area, security controls for prevention, detection and correction are needed to protect nuclear I&C programmable digital systems from external and internal cybersecurity threats.

The objective of this standard is to extend the SC45A series of documents addressing cybersecurity with IEC 62645 as its top-level document, by defining nuclear I&C programmable digital system specific security controls for I&C systems of the Safety Classes 1, 2, 3 and for non-classified (NC) I&C systems. The safety classification of I&C systems, and associated safety requirements, are among the biggest differences compared to typical IT systems and standard industrial automation systems. Annex B contains a correspondence between IEC 62645 and IEC 63096.

This standard, based on the security controls defined in ISO/IEC 27002, reflects the special security control requirements for nuclear I&C programmable digital systems. The original ISO/IEC 27002 requirements are either modified, detailed or completed, wherever deemed necessary from a nuclear I&C programmable digital system perspective. Additional nuclear I&C programmable digital system specific security controls that are not identified in ISO/IEC 27002, but deemed necessary are also added.

IEC 63096 refers in detail to a distinct version of IEC 27002 (see clause 2, Normative references). A later modification of IEC 27002 must not automatically influence the modifications, detailing and completions given by IEC 63096 without analysing the consequences from the nuclear I&C perspective.

By applying and extending the ISO/IEC 27002 security controls, this standard implicitly reflects all lifecycle phases of nuclear I&C programmable digital system platforms and systems.

By selecting the highly recommended security controls based on the processes as defined in IEC 62645 and the additional process details described within this standard the risk level will be reduced to an acceptable level.

The selection of security controls shall ensure that both safety and security requirements are met according to IEC 62859. If a specific security control negatively influences safety, safety prevails (see IEC 62859) and a compensatory security control should be implemented.

For the development of this standard ISO/IEC 27009 has been followed as far as applicable, also considering that the ISO/IEC 27009 is not binding for the SC45A IEC standard series.

ISO/IEC 27019 explicitly excludes the “process control domain of nuclear facilities”. 

NOTE: The term “process control domain of nuclear facilities” is a quote from the ISO/IEC 27019.

Oblast zaměření: Přístroje jaderné techniky
Komise : IEC/SC 45A (Instrumentation and control of nuclear facilities)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 10.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This International Standard applies to the design, location and application of installed equipment for monitoring local gamma radiation dose rates within nuclear facilities during normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences. High range area gamma radiation dose rate monitoring equipment for accident conditions currently addressed by IEC 60951-1 and IEC 60951-3 is not within the scope of this standard.

This standard is intended to be used in conjunction with IEC 60532 Ed. 3.0:2010.

NOTE  This standard does not apply to the measurement of neutron dose rate. Additional equipment for neutron monitoring may be required, depending on the plant design, if the neutron dose rate makes a substantial contribution to the total dose equivalent to personnel.

This standard provides guidelines for the design principles, the location, the application, the calibration, the operation, and the testing of installed equipment for continuously monitoring local gamma radiation dose rates in nuclear facilities under normal operation conditions and anticipated operational occurrences. These instruments are normally referred to as area radiation monitors. Portable instruments are also used for this purpose but are not covered by this standard.

Radiation monitors utilized in area radiation monitoring equipment are addressed in IEC 60532. As discussed in that standard measurement of gamma radiation may be expressed by a number of alternative quantities depending on national regulations. However, for this type of instrument, the most likely quantity to be measured is the air kerma (Gy), or the ambient dose equivalent H*(10)(Sv).

Oblast zaměření: Poplachové systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 79 (Alarm and electronic security systems )
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 17.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This International Standard specifies product specifications, requirements (security require- ments, component requirements, durability requirements, environmental and EMC requirements) and test methods for a digital door lock that is a locking device installed at the external or internal entrance doors of a building construction, and in which its mechanical components including mechatronical trims and mechatronical lock cylinders. The digital door lock can be a stand-alone single entrance product or a part of an integrated access control system or home network system.

Oblast zaměření: Vláknová optika
Komise : IEC/SC 86A (Fibres and cables)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 24.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This part of IEC 60793 establishes uniform requirements for the mechanical characteristic: fibre curl or latent curvature in uncoated optical fibres, i.e. a specified length of the fibre has been stripped from coating. Fibre curl has been identified as an important parameter for minimizing the splice loss of optical fibres when using passive alignment fusion splicers or active alignment mass fusion splicers.

Two methods are recognized for the measurement of fibre curl, in uncoated optical fibres:

method A: side view microscopy;

method B: laser beam scattering.

Both methods measure the radius of curvature of an uncoated fibre by determining the amount of deflection that occurs as an unsupported fibre end is rotated about the fibre's axis. Method A uses visual or digital video methods to determine the deflection of the fibre while method B uses a line sensor to measure the maximum deflection of one laser beam relative to a reference laser beam.

By measuring the deflection behaviour of the fibre as it is rotated about its axis and understanding the geometry of the measuring device, the fibre's radius of curvature can be calculated from simple circular models, the derivation of which are given in Annex C.

Both methods are applicable to type B optical fibres as described in the IEC 60793 series.

Method A is the reference test method, used to resolve disputes.

Oblast zaměření: Fotovoltaické systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 82 (Solar photovoltaic energy systems)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 24.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This part of IEC 60904 describes the procedures used to measure the dependence of any electrical parameter (Y) of a photovoltaic (PV) device with respect to a test parameter (X) and to determine the degree at which this dependence is close to an ideal linear (straight-line) function. It also gives guidance on how to consider deviations from the ideal linear dependence and in general on how to deal with non-linearities of PV device electrical parameters. Typical device parameters are the short-circuit current ISC, the open-circuit voltage VOC and the maximum power Pmax. Typical test parameters are the temperature T and the irradiance G. However, the same principles described in this standard can be applied to any other test parameter with proper adjustment of the procedure used to vary the parameter itself.

Performance evaluations of PV modules and systems, as well as performance translations from one set of temperature and irradiance to another, frequently rely on the use of linear equations (see for example IEC 60891, IEC 61853-1, IEC 61829 and IEC 61724-1). This standard lays down the requirements for linear dependence test methods, data analysis and acceptance limits of results to ensure that these linear equations will give satisfactory results. Such requirements prescribe also the range of the temperature and irradiance over which the linear equations may be used. This standard gives also a procedure on how to correct for deviations of the short-circuit current ISC from the ideal linear dependence on irradiance (linearity) for PV devices, regardless of whether they are classified linear or non-linear according to the limits set in Clause 9.7 of this standard. The impact of spectral irradiance distribution and spectral mismatch is considered for measurements at solar simulators as well as under natural sunlight.

The measurement methods described here apply to all PV devices, with some caution to be used for multi-junction PV devices, and are intended to be carried out on a device, or in some cases on an equivalent device of identical technology, that is stable according to the criteria set in the relevant part of IEC 61215. These measurements are meant to be performed prior to all measurements and correction procedures that require a linear device or that prescribe restrictions for non-linear devices.

The main methodology used in this standard is based on a fitting procedure in which a linear (straight-line) function is fitted to a set of measured data points {Xi,Yi}. The linear function uses a least-squares fit calculation routine, which in the most advanced analysis also accounts for the expanded combined uncertainty (k=2) of the measurements. The linear function crosses the origin in the case of short-circuit current data versus irradiance. The deviation of the measured data from the ideal linear function is also calculated and limits are prescribed for the permissible percentage deviation.

Procedures to determine the deviation of the Y(X) dependence from the linear (straight-line) function are described in Clauses 6 (measurements under natural sunlight and with solar simulator), 7 (differential spectral responsivity measurements) and 8 (measurements via two-lamp and N-lamp method). Data analyses to determine the deviations from the linear function are given in Clause 9.

A device is considered linear for the specific measured dependence Y(X), when it meets the requirements of 9.7.

Oblast zaměření: Fotovoltaické systémy
Komise : IEC/TC 82 (Solar photovoltaic energy systems)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 24.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This standard applies to equipment used for the detection and optionally the interruption of electric d.c. arcs in photovoltaic (PV) system circuits. The standard covers test procedures for the detection of serial arcs within PV circuits, and the response times of equipment employed to interrupt the arcs. 

The standard defines reference scenarios according to which the testing shall be conducted. This standard covers equipment connected to systems not exceeding a maximum PV source circuit voltage of 1500 V d.c..

The detection of parallel circuit arcs is not covered in this document.  This standard is not applicable to d.c. sources or applications other than PV d.c. sources.

NOTE Parallel arc detection is under consideration for a future edition.

Komise : IEC/SC 62A (Common aspects of electrical equipment used in medical practice)
Původce: ISO\IEC\CEN\CENELEC
K připomínkám do: 24.12.2019
Zobraz více Zobraz méně
 

This document specifies a framework of general requirements, guidance, for organizations in the application of risk management before, during and after the connection of a health it system within a health it infrastructure, by addressing the key properties of safety, effectiveness and security whilst engaging appropriate stakeholders.